What is COVID-19?

COVID-19 is an acute respiratory illness borne from infection with SARS-CoV-2 – a positive single-stranded RNA virus. The SARS-CoV-2 virus shares structural similarities to SARS and MERS, which cause acute severe respiratory infections. The incubation period for the development of clinical COVID-19 symptoms from the time of initial SARS-CoV-2 viral infection is highly variable, ranging from 2 to 14 days.

While more than 80% of infected patients spontaneously resolve the infection, up to 20% of COVID-19 patients have clinically severe complications which require hospitalization. Progression of the disease to respiratory failure has been common in severely ill patients and is associated with a high risk of death.

Clinical Signs and Symptoms

Stage 1*

Early Infection:

  • Mild constitutional symptoms including a fever, dry cough, headache, and nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea
  • Laboratory signs (variable) Lymphopenia, increased prothrombin time, increased D-Dimer and mild LDH

*Siddiqi et al The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation DOI:10.1016/j.healun. 2020.03.012

Stage 2*

Pulmonary Phase:

  • Shortness of breath (dyspnea) with hypoxia
  • Abnormal chest imaging, transaminitis, low-normal procalcitonin

*Siddiqi et al The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation DOI:10.1016/j.healun. 2020.03.012

Stage 3*

Hyperinflammation Phase:

  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)/Shock, and cardiac failure
  • Elevated inflammatory markers (CRP, LDH, IL-6, D-dimer, ferritin),Troponin, NT-proBNP elevation

*Siddiqi et al The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation DOI:10.1016/j.healun. 2020.03.012

About AT-527

The next steps in our global response to COVID-19.

A doctor in a protective mask is checking the temperature of a patient via an infrared thermometer.

What can we expect?

Given the lack of vaccines and conveniently administered therapeutics for SARS-CoV-2 infections, the primary approach employed for slowing the potential transmission of the virus has been to confirm infections through diagnostic testing, followed by the isolation of any infected persons or communities. Testing access and capacity have varied greatly across different countries, as have standards required for testing.

Several therapies and vaccines are currently being investigated to treat or prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Vaccines are being developed to prevent infection and to create herd immunity, with the aim of preventing disease and reducing the amount of virus circulating within the community. Antiviral therapies are complementary to vaccines. We anticipate that antivirals will continue to be essential because of uncertainties around the level of immunity that the vaccines will be able to generate and the durability of such immunity.

Stay informed through reputable sources.